Journal of Hospital Infection誌に発表された論文によると、重症急性呼吸器症候群(SARS)、中東呼吸器症候群(MERS)、風土性ヒトコロナウイルス(HCoV)など、新型以外のヒトコロナウイルスに関する22例の研究分析で、ウィルスが「金属、ガラス、プラスチックのような非生物表面上で9日間する」可能性、より具体的には「2時間から9日間」感染力を維持する可能性を研究グループが明らかにした。（参照）
“Half the world’s population (nearly 5 billion) will be short-sighted (myopic) by 2050, with up to one-fifth of them (1 billion) at a significantly increased risk of blindness if current trends continue”
A study by the team of the Opthalmology Department of Keio University school of Medicine in Japan announced that Violet Lights may have the effect of suppressing myopia progression(myopia control).
If you are not aware of this study’s results, you need to be careful!
Only being known the result can be danger.
Here is why, so you can be aware.
What Is Myopia, Nearsighted Or Shortsighted
Focus And Retina
What is myopia?(meaning or easy definition)
As you may know, myopia is known commonly as “nearsightedness” or “shortsightedness,” which is one of the conditions generally considered among refractive errors.
Normally, the light comes into your eyeball and the focus reach to retina, and then you can see what you want to see without blurred vision.
Proper focusing of the retina is crucial.
If you have myopia, the focus in your eyeball doesn’t reach to retina due to the extension of the depth of the eyeball, and that’s why when you see into distances, you have poor vision.
Imagine a magnifying glass.
Focusing on a paper can cause fire to break out.
That shows how much energy is contained in focusing.
Focusing at the retina creates the full energy to see clearly.
You Need To Know
Definition Of Ultraviolet
What is ultraviolet light(or rays)?
Ultraviolet light(rays) is a type of electromagnetic radiation which comes from the sun and is transmitted in waves or particles at different wavelengths and frequencies.
Let’s see the definition of ultraviolet which is concluded by CIE( Comision Internationale de I’Elairage: International Commission of Illumination).
Although internationally this broad range is defined, some people use a different broad range, especially UVA.
This broad range is called invisible light.
How the study went?
Study on Chicks
In short, according to research, multiple studies had shown outdoor activities could lead to the suppression of myopia progression, though animal studies and epidemiological studies, however nobody identifies what leads to suppressing myopia.
They focused on violet light, much of which is included outdoors.
The results show they conducted on 4 types of chicks’ eyes, which induced myopia by covering with plastic goggles were exposed by violet light (average of myopia progression was to around -5D) which induced myopia by covering with plastic goggles weren’t exposed by violet light (average of myopia progression was to around -15D)
which didn’t induce myopia were exposed by violet light. (Average was no myopia progression) which didn’t induce myopia weren’t exposed by violet light. (to around -1D)
They concluded violet light increase the expression of a gene known as EGR1(Early Growth Response 1), which is responsible for preventing myopia in chicks.
And I agree this result can be preventing myopia progression in chicks, but you need to listen carefully because 360〜400nm wavelength of violet light which they call is actually same as we call it UVA broad range.
Violet Lght Exposure And Children Wore Contact Lenses
Clinical trial for humans wore contact lenses
Secondly, as clinical trials, they compared different types of contact lenses that were worn by nearsighted children from age 13 to 18.
They were further divided into two groups; children who wore violet light transmitting (VL-T) contact lens (116 people 116 eyes) and children who wore violet light blocked (VL-B) contact lens (31people 31eyes).
The result revealed there is a significant difference between VL-T lens and VL-B lens.
The result showed how different axial lengths were, in spite of the fact that they showed its diopter in the chick’s case.
You know why?
Because the differences are too small to show its diopter.
Do you still believe that your eye(cornea) needs oxygen(oxygen supply)? Perhaps you don’t know about mitochondria.
If you wear contact lenses, you have probably been told that you risk damage to your cornea from a lack of oxygen.
This is a myth.
Mitochondrial DNA & Respiration
Have you ever heard of mitochondria?
The mitochondrion is an “organelle” that exists in every cell of your body.
Mitochondria have a unique structure which is passed on to you from your mother’s DNA(mitochondrial DNA).
The mitochondrion works as a power-plant, making energy by consuming oxygen and pyruvic acid which is metabolized from glucose(mitochondrial respiration).
So, you can’t live without it.
Red Muscle Fibers vs White Muscle Fibers=Cardio Or Not
Did you know that we have both red and white muscle?
Mitochondria are prevalent in your red muscle which is responsible for long term muscle movement such as jogging and aerobics, and powers everyday actions.(=cardio)
The red colored muscle comes from the presence of oxygenated myoglobin and mitochondria, which are both partially red to begin with.
First, oxygen is transported by hemoglobin through your blood vessels to myoglobin in your muscles and delivers mitochondria.
On the other hand, the muscle responsible for short team movement such as sprinting and weight-training is the so-called “white muscle.”
White muscle has much less myoglobin and mitochondria.
The point is the cell has less mitochondria and therefore can’t utilize oxygen even if you take a lot of breaths.
Now you probably understand how your mitochondrion works in your cell, don’t you?
MuscleFibers/TypeⅠ, TypeⅡa Or TypeⅡx?
Red muscle is also called TypeⅠfibers or slow-twitch muscle fibers.
White muscle is also called TypeⅡx fibers or fast-twitch muscle fibers.
Midiam colored muscle is called TypeⅡa fibers or moderate fast-twitch muscle fibers.
Let’s get back to the cornea.
Your cornea can’t utilize oxygen because it doesn’t have sufficient mitochondria.
This is certified by a DNA appraisal.
Ultraviolet lights (rays) Radiation&Active Oxygen
DNA analysis shows the fact that your cornea can’t breathe
Toshio Tsubai, MD, a biochemist at Osaka University Medical School who has conducted over thirty years of research on ocular surface biochemistry, discovered that the cornea has an unusual metabolic system which can reduce oxygen and produce antioxidants. This system enables your cornea to produce antioxidants which leads to the reduction of oxygen.
Initially, he wanted to understand why although ultraviolet light makes a crystalline lens cloudy, it seems to have no effect on the cornea.
This is mysterious indeed.
Everyone who is aging can be diagnosed with cataracts, however getting older itself does not seem to cause cloudy symptoms in the cornea.
Your cornea receives more exposure to ultraviolet lights(rays) than your crystalline lens.
UV reacts with oxygen to generate active oxygen.
Active oxygen can harm your cells and age them, but your cornea never gets old like your crystalline lens.
Here is the answer which the researcher found!
•Research before his study had experimented with rabbit eyes.
•Rabbits are nocturnal.
•These nocturnal corneas don’t need to reduce oxygen because they had low UV(ultraviolet radiation) exposure.
•He found cow and human corneas had different metabolism from that of nocturnal rabbits.
•From the result of DNA appraisal of human and cow corneas, he found mitochondria existed partially, but they were dysfunctional.
•This means that even though your conea can absorb oxygen, it can’t utilize oxygen. Not only that, by utilizing an unusual metabolic system, your cornea is able to erase active oxygen for its protection.
•He also discovered that many kinds of antioxidants were included in tears.
•Japan Contact Lens Society has claimed that tears are oxygen saturated and supply it to the cornea, but when measuring redox potential, there was in fact only one third of saturation.
•This unusual metabolism which is called PPP (Pentose Phosphate Pathway) utilizes G6P (Glucose-6-Phosphate) and reacts it with a large amount of water molecules and oxidized coenzyme NADP (Nicotinamid Adenine Dicnuleotide Phosphate), and then converts into reduced coenzyme NADPH and carbon dioxide.
•Reduced coenzyme NADPH can erase oxygen.
Based on all of this evidence, researchers have concluded that for observers who had no idea that the cornea could produce antioxidants and erase oxygen, an assumption that oxygen was absorbed, and carbon dioxide was emitted could make them believe the cornea needs oxygen to breathe.
And yet the fact is your cornea cannot breathe in the first place due to the scavenging function.
That is why your cornea can remain transparent your whole life without replacement!